Question: Montessori And EYFS: A Comparative Study Focusing On The Involvement Of Parents.

UREC 1 RESEARCH ETHICS REVIEW FOR STUDENT RESEARCH WITH NO HUMAN PARTICIPANTS OR DIRECT COLLECTION OF HUMAN TISSUES, OR BODILY FLUIDS.

All University research is required to undergo ethical scrutiny to comply with UK law. The SHU    Research Ethics Policy  should be consulted before completing the form. Answering the questions below will confirm that the study fits this category and that any necessary approvals or safety risk assessments are in place. The supervisor will approve the study, but it may also be reviewed by the College Teaching Programme Research Ethics Committee  (CTPREC) as part of the quality assurance process.

The final responsibility for ensuring that ethical research practices are followed rests with the supervisor for student research.

Note that students and staff are responsible for making suitable arrangements to ensure compliance with the General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR), for keeping data secure  and  if  relevant,  for  keeping  the  identity  of  participants  anonymous. They are also responsible for following SHU guidelines about data encryption and research data management. Information on the ethics website

The form also enables the University and College to keep a record confirming that research conducted has been subjected to ethical scrutiny.

The form may be completed by the student and the supervisor and/or module leader (as applicable). In all cases, it should be counter-signed by the supervisor and/or  module  leader,  and  kept  as  a  record  showing  that  ethical  scrutiny  has  occurred. Students should retain a copy for inclusion in the appendices of their research projects, and a copy should be  uploaded to the module Blackboard site for checking.

Please note if it may be necessary to conduct a health and safety risk assessment for the proposed research. Further information can be obtained from the Safety Co-Ordinator.

1. General Details

Name of studentAderonke Yewande Olayinka
SHU email addressC0027301@my.shu.ac.uk
Course or qualification  (student)MA Education (Main Pathway)
Name of supervisorDr. Anne Kellock
email addressa.kellock@shu.ac.uk
Title of proposed researchMontessori and Early Years Foundation Stage: A comparative Study focusing on the involvement of parents.
Proposed start dateApril 30, 2021
Proposed end dateAugust 30, 2021
 MONTESSORI method of education was developed by Italian physician, Maria Montessori. She emphasized the independence of the child in education. It views children as naturally eager for knowledge and capable of initiating learning in a sufficiently supportive and well prepared learning environment. The five principles of Montessori are: Respect for the child: not interrupting their concentration. Absorbent mind: children learn simply by living. Sensitive periods: there are certain periods when children want to learn. Prepared environment: child centered environment that is attractive, conducive and set up to meet the educational needs of the children. Auto education: self-education that is guided, inspired and encouraged[1] [2] .  https://www.fundacionmontessori.org/the-montessori-method.htm A Rreview of literature suggests that parents involvement in children’s education provides numerous positive outcomes for elementary as well as preschool learners (Christenton et al 1992.,. )In [3] [4] general, productive collaboration between schools and families have been associated with higher achievements and lower drop out rates (Keith TC et al 1993),),a decline in behaviour problems (Corner[5] [6] , 1984) and academic initiatives and persistence (Estrada et al 1987)   A Comparative study is the act of comparing two or more things with a view of discovering something about one or all the things compared. This technique often utilizses multiple disciplines in one study. The comparison between EYFS & MONTESSORI EDUCATION are clear. The EYFS theme of a unique child is based on the principle that every child is a competent learner from birth who can be resilient, capable, confident and self-assured. The emphasis placed on active learning and learning through experience within the theme of learning and development is again very much in line with Montessori practice. Montessori Society AMI (UK) – EYFS sets standards for the learning development and care of child from birth to five years old. EFYS have seven key areas. Personal, social and emotional development.   Montessori education is student led,self-paced but guided, assessed and enriched by knowledgeable and caring teachers, the leadership of their peers in a nurturing environment to providing an integrated curriculum.  It is from birth to adolescence. EPSTEIN’S MODEL THEORY This model focuses its outlines on six concrete types of family involvement: positive home conditions, communication, involvement at school, home learning activities, shared decision making within the school, and the community partnership. [7] [8] [9] MacDonald, R. (2004). BENEFITS: Epstein et Al. (1997) 1. Learners have awareness of their own progress and of the actions needed to maintain or improve grades. 2. Parents understand school programs and policies and are able to monitor the child’s progress. 3. For educators,  there is increased diversity and use of communication with families and an awareness of won ability to communicate clearly. Furthermore,  there is increased ability to elicit and understand family views on children’s programmes and progress and parents networks fore communication are used and appreciated.   Barriers: Distance between the home and school. Negative perceptions of parents. Dual career families. Parents fear. Grandparents as care givers. Inadequate teacher training. Lack of finance.   I will carry out this study through LR. I have chosen this method because it will provide a thorough understanding of current findings in Parent involvement in Montessori and EYFS. It will enable me to compare different research findings and identify gaps for future research. Also considering current restrictions in conducting research with Covid-19, a SLR will be a good idea since it has little ethical implications. In conducting this study, a comprehensive search of relevant literature will be conducted and a detailed record of all keyword searches, databases used, dates and numbers of texts will be kept. A detailed set of inclusion and exclusion criteria will be applied. Terms to search for in the LR are; parent involvement, early childhood development, Montessori education, parenting, communication, volunteering, learning at home, decision making, collaborating with the community, EYFS.  I will also include literatures from reports, websites, journal articles, books and policy documents. The criteria for inclusion and exclusion in the review will include the date of publication, location of research, details and type of methodology, Identity, size of sample, the type of intervention and the data analysis method. After the articles for inclusion have been identified, key data will be extracted from each piece of literature and the evidence will be synthesized from the articles using both narrative synthesis and meta-analysis. Based on the synthesis of evidence, recommendations for practice are made and conclusions will be drawn. Aims. This research aims at providing a thorough background to the different types of parents involvement as outlined in the Epstein model.  The study aims at explaining the provision of EYFS and Montessori in education including the role of parent involvement in this provision. By means of SLR, the study aims at exploring the existing principle and practices of parents involvement by educators and parents in the Montessori method and EYFS.   Ethical Issues. A good storage and retrieval system is critical for permitting easy, flexible, reliable use of data and for documentation of the analysis made so that the study can, in principle be verified or replicated. Validity and reliability in quantitative literature.  Confidentiality: I will protect the freely given informed consent of the subject, that is the protection of data of the LR used.  Honesty:  I will make sure that I do not misrepresent Datas, results, or other types of information pertaining to scientific publication I will present the proposals and data honestly and communicate the best of my understanding of the work in writing and also present the sides of each issue to engender objectivity. No BIASED false expectations:  I will avoid biased false expectations. I will also make sure I rate how much I believe my expectations are. I will include the evidence of my expectations. No information bias:  I will make ascertain that I do not miss a major data in recording my data or information.  No confounding bias:  A mixture of restriction, randomization and matching is found in confounding bias. All these will be excluded in my research.  No selection bias: Data analysis will be introduced in such a way that proper randomization is achieved. Questions: What are the characteristics of a comprehensive parent involvement programmes as typified by the Epstein model? What are the barriers and benefits of how the role of parent is involved in EYFS and Montessori? What are the various ways that parents can be involved in EYFS and Montessori  teaching and learning development and care of child from birth to adolescence and? How can these findings contribute to the implementation of effective parent involvement programmes for parents and educators in EYFS and Montessori? What are the experiences of educators and parents of the different types of parent and community involvement as set out in the Epstein ? REFERENCES[10] [11]  Sanders, M., & Epstein, J. (2020). School-Family-Community Partnerships and Educational Change: International Perspectives. Retrieved 21 April 2021, from MacDonald, R. (2004). JSTOR: A History20047Roger C. Schonfeld. JSTOR: A History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2003. 412 pp., ISBN: 0691115311 US$29.95 (hardback). The Electronic Library22(1), 84-85. doi: 10.1108/026404704105202     Lillard, A. (2006). The early years. Evaluating Montessori education. Science., 313(5795), 1893–1894. MacDonald, R. (2004). JSTOR: A History20047Roger C. Schonfeld. JSTOR: A History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2003. 412 pp., ISBN: 0691115311 US$29.95 (hardback). The Electronic Library., 22(1), 84–85 Tisdall, E. (2009). Researching with children and young people research design, methods and analysis /. Los Angeles, [Calif.] ; London :: SAGE,. (2003). Retrieved 21 April 2021, from http://MCGRAW HILL (2001). Retrieved 21 April 2021, from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/43175276.pdf (1996). Retrieved 21 April 2021, from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED411048 Greenwood, M. (2021). Places for the good care of children : a discussion of indigenous cultural considerations and early childhood in Canada and New Zealand. Open.library.ubc.ca. Retrieved 21 April 2021, from https://open.library.ubc.ca/handle/2429/14838.   (2021). Retrieved 21 April 2021, from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ397707. Kohn, A. (2006). Unconditional parenting. Atria. Lillard, P., & Lillard, P. (1997). Montessori from the start. Schocken Books. Moylett, H. Understanding the revised Early Years Foundation Stage.

 I confirm that this study does not involve collecting data from human participants _✔_  (please tick)

2. Research in Organizations

QuestionYes/No
Will the research involve working with/within an organization (e.g. school, business, charity, museum, government department, international agency, etc.)?No
If you answered YES to question 1, do you have granted access to conduct the research? If YES, students please show evidence to your supervisor. PI should retain safely. 
If you answered NO to question 2, is it because:you have not yet asked you have asked and not yet received an answer you have asked and been refused access.   Note: You will only be able to start the research when you have been granted access.A

3. Research with Products and Artifacts

QuestionYes/No
1. Will the research involve working with copyrighted documents, films, broadcasts, photographs, artworks, designs, products, programs, databases, networks, processes, existing datasets or secure data?No
2. If you answered YES to question 1, are the materials you intend to use in the public domain?   Notes: ‘In the public domain’ does not mean the same thing as ‘publicly accessible’. Information which is ‘in the public domain’ is no longer protected by copyright (i.e. copyright has either expired or been waived) and can be used without permission.Information which is ‘publicly accessible’ (e.g. TV broadcasts, websites, artworks, newspapers) is available for anyone to consult/view. It is still protected by copyright even if there is no copyright notice. In UK law, copyright protection is automatic and does not require a copyright statement, although it is always good practice to provide one. It is necessary to check the terms and conditions of use to find out exactly how the material may be reused etc.   If you answered YES to question 1, be aware that you may need to consider other ethics codes. For example, when conducting Internet research, consult the code of the Association of Internet Researchers; for educational research, consult the Code of Ethics of the British Educational Research Association. 
3. If you answered NO to question 2, do you have explicit permission to use these materials as data? If YES, please show evidence to your supervisor.No
4. If you answered NO to question 3, is it because: A. you have not yet asked permission B. you have asked and not yet received and answer C. you have asked and been refused access.   Note       You will only be able to start the research when you have been granted permission to use the specified material.A/B/C A✔

Adherence to SHU policy and procedures

Personal statement
I can confirm that: I have read the Sheffield Hallam University Research Ethics Policy and ProceduresI agree to abide by its principles.
Student ID: 30027301
Name: Aderonke Yewande OlayinkaDate: 09/03/2021
Signature: AY
Supervisor or other person giving ethical sign-off
I can confirm that completion of this form has confirmed that this research does not involve human participants. The research will not commence until any approvals required under Sections 3 & 4 have been received and any health and safety measures are in place.
Name: Dr Anne KellockDate: 14.05.21
Signature: A Kellock
Additional Signature if required:
Name:Date:
Signature:

Please ensure the following are included with this form if applicable, tick box to indicate:

 YesNoN/A
Research proposal if prepared previously
Any associated materials (e.g. posters, letters, etc.)
Health and Safety Project Safety Plan for Procedures

Where does this information come from?

https://www.fundacionmontessori.org/the-montessori-method.htm

This reference is incomplete and not presented appropriately should be authors and year

The years and authors are included now.

year

Year included.

Is this a reference or citation?

It is a citation.

I did it according to APA referencing.

take more time and care with this section

I have done most references according to APA. I will be including more references while my research is ongoing. The Ethics forms will be too loaded if I add more references.

Solution:

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